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Cave Surveying Course Outline

Cave Cartography Course Outline

Reading/Texts

Materials List

I offer courses in cave surveying and cartography for those interested in learning more about surveying underwater.  These are not certification courses and are not sanctioned by the NSS-CDS or the NACD.  Neither are they diving courses and there is no diving required for either course.

They are very in-depth and focus on the mechanics of producing a survey and map of the cave.  Each course takes approximately two full days and is  $250.00 per student, per class, with a minimum of two students, maximum of four.  Private courses are available also. 

For more information and course availability, please contact me at: mpoucher@cavesurvey.com or call at 352-840-0167.

Underwater Cave Surveying Course Outline

Introduction

This course is intended to provide the students with an in-depth knowledge of surveying in under water caves. It is meant to motivate more divers to survey, encourage the use of maps in dive planning, increase the quantity of available maps, and to standardize survey projects.

This is not a course on diving and there is no requirement for diving in the course.

The course reviews the history of surveying and the development of standards and procedures. Topics include: accuracy standards, composition of the survey team, use and fabrication of tools, survey techniques and methodology, safety considerations, data manipulation, calculations, and symbology. An overview of basic cartography methods as well as copyright and publication are also included. These topics are covered in more detail in the Cave Cartography Course.

Course length is typically 16 hours of classroom time.

Class size is a minimum of two and maximum of four students.

Syllabus

Why survey?

    1. Aid to exploration.
    2. Documentation: "If you didn't survey, you weren't there."
    3. Scientific/Planning uses.

History

    1. Early Maps.
    2. Introduction of modern techniques.

Challenges of surveying in underwater caves

    1. Full cave certification.
    2. Experience.
    3. Buoyancy control.
    4. Rewards.

Review of existing maps

    1. Stick maps.
    2. Detail Maps.
    3. Artwork maps.

Planning

A. Use of the map

    a.  Aid in exploration.

    b.  Dive planning.

    c.  Conservation/ land use.

    d.  Scientific studies.

    e.  Artwork.

B. Accuracy

  1. BCRA standards.
  2. Tools and Methods.
  1. Tools
  1. Knotted line vs. tape.
  2. Slates.
  3. Compasses.
  4. Sonar guns.
  5. Survey markers.
  6. How to carry it all.

The Survey Process

  1. Line placement
  1. Point-to-point.
  2. Clearance for surveyor.
  3. Avoid long bends.
  4. High angles.
  1. Communications
  1. Survey team.
  2. Pre-dive planning.
  3. Maintaining buddy contact.
  4. Safety , Safety divers.
  5. Monitoring air.
  6. Hand signals for numbers.
  7. Tape signals.
  1. Recording Survey information
  1. noting features.
  1. Be consistent with procedure.
  2. Reference to mainline, feature type, size, left/right, distance.
  1. Running circuit lines.
  2. Using triangulation.
  3. Vertical measurement/plumb bob.
  4. Large chambers.
  5. Long passages.
  6. Radials.
  7. Sketching.
  1. Estimating sidewalls (Outside exercises in estimating)

  2. Common errors

    a.  Keep consistency is best way to avoid.

    b.  Reading compass wrong.

    c.  Backsights/foresights.

    d.  Different compass set-ups.

    e.  Reading from wrong gradation.

    f.  Depths not calibrated.

    g.  Counting knots.

    h.  Tapes tenths, inches, meters, feet.

Data Reduction

  1. Graphical Methods.
  2. Basic Math Concepts.
  3. Conversion Formulas.
  4. Loop Closure.
  5. Magnetic Deviation.

Surface survey exercise. (2-3 hours)

Plotting Map

Cave Surveying Course Outline

Cave Cartography Course Outline

Reading/Texts

Materials List

Top of Page

Cave Cartography Course

Introduction

This course is intended to provide the students with specialized knowledge to create maps of underwater caves. It is meant to encourage the creation and publication of more maps and to increase the quality of available maps, and to standardize survey projects.

This is not a course on diving and there is no requirement for diving in the course.

The course reviews the role of maps as a tool for cave divers and the standards and procedures used by cave cartographers. Topics include: symbology, materials, tools, methods, and publication. Hands on exercises are included to demonstrate particular methods and skills. An overview of basic underwater surveying techniques is included. This topic is covered in more detail in the Underwater Cave Surveying course.

Course length is typically 16 hours of classroom time.

Class size is a minimum of two and maximum of four students.

Syllabus

Role of maps

  1. Aid in exploration.
  2. Dive planning.
  3. Conservation/ land use.
  4. Scientific studies.
  5. Artwork.

Analyze current maps

  1. Stick maps.
  2. Detail Maps.
  3. Artwork maps.

Surveying underwater caves

  1. Distance, azimuth, depth.
  2. Noting features.
  3. Accuracy considerations.

Data Reduction

  1. Basic Math.
  2. Loop correction and error correction.
  3. Magnetic Deviation.

Planning the map

  1. Size.
  2. Materials.
  3. Rough plot and draft.

Information to be conveyed

  1. Depth, Azimuth, Distance.
  2. Plan/Profile.
  3. Passage size and configuration.
  4. Cross section information.

Symbology

  1. Low areas/ restrictions.
  2. Silty areas.
  3. Features: boulders, columns, slopes, rooms, etc.

Style

  1. Fonts.
  2. Line thickness.
  3. Feature placement.

Map Creation

  1. Materials.
  2. Title block - name, county, participants, length, grade.
  3. North Arrows.
  4. Digital Methods.

Publication/Copyrights

Class Exercises:

Basic Survey and notation. (Outside 3-4 hours).

Drafting a cave map. (Inside 2-3 hours)

Cave Surveying Course Outline

Cave Cartography Course Outline

Reading/Texts

Materials List

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Text:

"Basic Underwater Cave Surveying", John Burge, NSS-CDS, 1989.

"OnStation", by George R. Dasher, NSS, 1994.

 

Cave Surveying Course Outline

Cave Cartography Course Outline

Reading/Texts

Materials List

Top of Page

 

Materials List

 

  1. Pencils
  2. Eraser
  3. Engineer scale
  4. Protractor
  5. Quadrille paper
  6. Drawing pens (optional)
  7. Fiberglass tape
  8. Compass (mounted on slate optional)
  9. Bubble level (optional)
  10. Survey slate or wet notes
  11. Line/survey markers
  12. Stakes
  13. Mask light (optional)
  14. Calculator

Cave Surveying Course Outline

Cave Cartography Course Outline

Reading/Texts

Materials List

Top of Page

 
 

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